Most views are that the role of multilateral institutions will grow.

Most views are that the role of multilateral institutions will grow.

Most views are that the role of multilateral institutions will grow. However, the question remains debatable: will the current monetary (neoclassical) system remain effective, or will it give way to supranational institutions with a significant restriction of national economic sovereignty?

The development of the world economy has not yet provided science with practical evidence of the declining efficiency of monetary forms of regulation and management of foreign economic activity.

Neoclassical economists added little to Mill’s theory of international trade. In general, we call the theory of international trade a theory whose main question is: if the balance of payments is maintained in equilibrium, then what are the revenues from trade and how these revenues are distributed among countries depending on the terms of trade? However, in our time this theory has been reworked by Heckscher and Olin, two Swedish economists.

Heckscher-Olin’s theory proposes a model of trade in terms of comparative supply of countries with factors of production. A country will have a relative advantage in those products whose production requires the intensive use of a factor that is abundant in the country, and therefore it will import those products whose production requires the intensive use of a factor that is relatively rare in the country.

This theory is based on Ricardo’s “law of comparative cost”, supplemented and reinforced by Mill’s concept of mutual demand, but it goes further, linking the model of international trade with the structure of the economies of trading countries.

Thus, Heckscher-Olin’s theory offers a tool for analyzing the impact of changes in trade on countries’ own economic structures and, in particular, on the internal distribution of profits.

This theory clarifies the old classical theorem, according to which trade replaces the movement of factors between countries, and therefore it raises the question of whether trade alone – in the absence of full international mobility of factors – can equalize prices for all factors of production in all countries. trade. In this regard, it should be noted that although Ricardo-Mill’s theory of international trade has been tested more successfully than many other elements of classical political economy, even this theory has been thoroughly reworked today.


Blaug M. Economic thought in retrospect. – M., 1994. Keynes JM General theory of employment, interest and money. – Moscow, 1978. Kireev AP International Economics: In 2 hours – Moscow, 1999. Lenin VI Imperialism as the highest stage of capitalism // Poly. sobr. op. T. 27. Lindert P. Economics of world economic relations. – M., 1992. Mill J. St. Fundamentals of political economy and some aspects of their application to social philosophy. – M., 1980-1981. – Vol. 1-3. Pokrovskaya VV Organization and regulation of foreign economic activity. – M., 1999. Ricardo D. The beginnings of political economy and taxation. M., 1955. T. 1-4. Skas J., Larren F. Macroeconomics. Global approach. – M., 1999. Samuelson P., Nordhaus V. Macroeconomics. – K., 1995.


“The Third Wave” by Alvin Toffler. Abstract

Initially, there was a “first wave” that Toffler called “agricultural.” Land everywhere was the basis of economy, life, politics, family organization. Everywhere there was a simple division of labor, there were several castes or classes. Power was authoritarian, a person’s social background determined his place in life. The economy was decentralized: each community produced most of what it needed

Three hundred years ago there was an “explosion, the waves of which swept the earth, destroying ancient societies and giving birth to a qualitatively new civilization.” Such an explosion was the industrial revolution. By the middle of the twentieth century, the forces of the “first wave” had been destroyed and “industrial civilization” reigned on earth. However, her power was not long.

A new civilization is entering our lives. Brings new family relationships, a new economy, new political conflicts, changes in style of work, leisure, consciousness in general. A life based on renewable energy, closed-loop production, radically transformed homes, schools and corporations of the future. The third wave prepares a new code of conduct for us, leaving in the past standardization, synchronization, centralization, concentration of energy, money and forces.

The conflict between the Second and Third Waves is, in fact, the main cause of political tension in society website to write my lab report today. However, the most important political issue is not who controls the last days of industrial society, but who is shaping the new civilization.

The structures of the Second Wave crash. Mass societies with their mass production are disappearing. The Third Wave is characterized by non-mass production of small batches of high demand goods. Companies produce goods and services based on a certain regular user. The number of newspapers, TV channels, sites intended for a small target audience is constantly increasing. Giant TV networks and media monsters are falling apart.

In turn, the very complexity of the new system requires an increasing exchange of information between its parts – companies, authorities, hospitals, associations and individuals. This creates a huge need for computers, digital networks and new means of working with information.

At the same time, the pace of technological exchange and business daily work is growing. In fact, the Third Wave economy is operating at such high speeds that its main suppliers can barely keep up. And all this because knowledge reduces the need for raw materials, labor, time, space, capital and other resources, become an indispensable main source of modern economy, the value of which is constantly growing.

The gigantic changes facing humanity have seriously shaken our self-assured vision of the future. Pessimistic views are becoming more common. Psychotherapists and gurus are engaged in the land business, and people wander aimlessly through the gray streets, convinced that reality is absurd, madness and complete nonsense.

Many people are accustomed to the constant set of bad news, horror movies, nightmares and feelings of doom, finally decided that modern society and they personally have no future. The earth is moving resolutely towards the final cataclysm.

Toffler, however, argues that change is not chaotic or accidental, but is an accurate and clear model. A normal, beautiful future is possible with the restructuring of lifestyle, study, work, thinking. The global race will be won by those countries and those individuals who complete their transition to the Third Wave with minimal internal contradictions and unrest.


Components of world culture. Abstract

Today, the culture of peace goes far beyond the traditional notion of international peace as the absence of war and includes a number of components

The idea of ​​a culture of peace was first officially put forward at the UNESCO International Congress on Peace, held in Côte d’Ivoire in 1989.

The Declaration adopted by Congress noted that “it is necessary to promote a new worldview that develops a culture of peace based on respect for human life, freedom, justice, solidarity, tolerance, human rights and equality between men and women.” Since then, the meaning of the concept of culture of peace has expanded significantly, supplemented by new components.

Today, the culture of peace goes far beyond the traditional notion of international peace as the absence of war and includes the following components:

respect for life, people and their rights, renunciation of all forms of violence and commitment to conflict prevention by eliminating the causes of conflicts, as well as solving problems solely through dialogue and negotiation, recognition of equal rights and opportunities for men and women, recognition of rights freedom to express one’s opinions and beliefs and to receive information, commitment to the principles of democracy, freedom, justice, tolerance, solidarity, cooperation, pluralism, dialogue and mutual understanding between peoples, ethnic, religious, cultural and other groups and individuals … commitment to the principles of a socially oriented society, willingness to care for the environment.

Let’s dwell in more detail on each point.

Respect everyone’s life

If the resolution of any conflict is based on the need to strictly respect human rights and freedoms, on the need to ensure their implementation for each member of society, the result can be a society of common prosperity and stable prosperity. An important role belongs to education, because it is impossible to solve problems and implement some tasks or ideas without understanding their essence.

In 1993, the World Plan of Action for Human Rights Education and Democracy was adopted in Montreal, and the Decade of Human Rights Education was proclaimed. By the way, if you look closely, these principles are actually laid down in the 10 Christian commandments, the observance of which, according to the Bible, is the way back to paradise. Some people talk about the need for economic growth, political stability and other reasonable things, but life will be much better tomorrow if all earthlings recognize and strictly respect each other’s rights.

Reject violence

Among the principles of a culture of peace, the priority is the rejection of violent methods of resolving any conflict, the inadmissibility of human casualties, the avoidance of violence and conflict in its infancy. Violence has been inherent in humanity throughout its centuries-long history. It has almost established itself as the main function of the state and statehood in general, penetrated into culture, education, relationships in the family, society, team, at the interstate level. Many great humanists at various times argued that violence can be overcome only by opposing it with tolerance, respect for the opinions of others, for foreign culture and its components such as traditions, customs, religious and political beliefs.